Bone Broth

Bare Bones Bone Broth:

Nutritional break-down and clinical evidence

Bone Broth:   bones simmered over an extended period to release beneficial minerals, proteins and fat

Going back to traditional ideals and presenting something of pure nutrition. Bone broth is not new and has been around for centuries, with evidence of use from North American native people to continued use into the 17th century and beyond (S.G. Claire, 1997).   This tasty and nutritious source of minerals and easily digestible protein can be used to help deficient individuals (i.e. sick, children or elderly) gain strength. “Malnutrition has been often suggested as contributing to both the high incidence of hip fracture in elderly people” (Tkatch, Lubos, et al. 1992).

Also, Bone Broth can potentially benefit individuals by increasing recovery time during acute illness (i.e. cold and flu) as, “removing the active chemical ingredients into the water by means of heat, time, and acid, making the nutrients immediately available to absorb” (A. Siebecker, 2004).   Bone broth can be consumed whilst on the ketogenic or paleolithic diet as an additional source of some minerals, protein and fat.

Bare Bones Bone Broth has no additives or preservatives and can be given to pets, as it contains no added sodium (does contain a small amount of apple cider vinegar to increase demineralization from bones).

“To ‘support and strengthen’ the function of connective tissue. To ‘support and protect’ the function of bone. To ‘store energy,’ the function of yellow bone marrow. To act as a ‘shock absorber and reduce friction,’ the function of cartilage. To be ‘flexible and strong,’ the function of collagen. To ‘hold it together’ and ‘keep it together,’ also the function of collagen. To ‘soup up,’ to increase the power or speed of. To ‘put stock in,’ to trust.” (Rombauer, I, et al. 1997)

Bone:   provides the structural framework of our skeletal system, it houses and protects organs, aids in the process of mineralization/demineralization/calcium cellular absorption, produces blood cells and stores energy.

Bone Marrow:   contains fat and calories, includes; protein, Vit.B12, E, A, B2, Iron, Phosphorous, Thiamine

Cartilage:   important structural component that is softer and more flexible then bone and is found primarily are joint cartilage

Collagen: structural component for ligaments and tendons, “strengthening glue” to withstand blood pressure within vessels (E. Whitney, S.R. Rolfes, T. Crowe, D. Cameron-Smith, & A. Walsh, 2014).   Found in skin, bones, dentine and cartilage, Vitamin C is a essential vitamin for the production of collagen.

“Prolonged heat exposure causes the collagen in connective tissue to turn into a gelatin that is more easily digested by humans.” (Lupo, Karen D., and Dave N. Schmitt., 1997).

Gelatin:   almost entirely protein (main amino acids outlined below), derived from cooked collagen

Glycine: essential amino acid, “has been found to exert anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, cytoprotective, platelet-stabilising and antiangiogenic effects” (McCarty, Mark F., and James J. DiNicolantonio., 2014).

Proline:   essential amino acid, “recognized that proline metabolism propels cellular signaling processes that promote cellular apoptosis or survival.” (Liang, Xinwen, et al. 2013).

Glycosaminoglycans: polysaccharides, “is now recognized that these substances play crucial roles in the maintenance and regulation of cellular function as well as intercellular support.” (Lamberg, Stanford I., and Allen C. Stoolmiller, 1974).

Hyaluronic acid:   polymer of disaccharide, “Embryonic tissues including skin and umbilical cord and space-filling tissue fluid such as vitreous humor and synovial fluid are rich in hyaluronic acid.” (Lamberg, Stanford I., and Allen C. Stoolmiller. 1974)

Chondroitin sulfate:   disaccharide, “the activation of **NF-κB is pivotal to immune homeostasis and the inflammatory response and therefore, in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases. The benefits of CS in osteoarthritis may be explained by reduction of NF-κB nuclear translocation in chondrocytes and synovial membrane.” (Vallières, M., and P. Du Souich., 2010)

**NF-kB is a protein that controls cytokine production, cytokines are proteins that signal immune responses

Minerals:

Calcium: essential mineral

“dietary calcium should be the primary source, and supplements reserved only for those who are unable to achieve an adequate dietary intake.” (Reid, I. R., S. M. Bristow, and M. J. Bolland., 2015)

“achieving an optimal dietary calcium intake is again a central issue when advising patients at risk of osteoporotic fractures.” (Reid, I. R., S. M. Bristow, and M. J. Bolland., 2015)

Phosphorus:  most abundant mineral in the body, “Phosphorus is an ingredient of ATP, the body’s source of energy. It is therefore a regulator of all enzymes via activation reactions.” (A. Siebecker, 2004)

Magnesium:   essential mineral

“Magnesium is an essential element that is crucial to hundreds of physiologic processes in humans (1). Not surprisingly, inadequate intake of magnesium has been linked to various adverse health outcomes, including the development of cardiovascular disease (2), hypertension (3), diabetes mellitus (4) and headaches (5). Furthermore, magnesium is important in bone growth (6) and may play a role in athletic performance (7).” (Ford, Earl S., and Ali H. Mokdad. 2003)

Sodium: this product contains no added sodium*   as, “While the body needs some sodium to function, too much may lead to high blood pressure, which is a major risk factor for stroke, heart disease and kidney disease.” (Dietitians of Canada, 2019)

Potassium:   essential mineral and electrolyte

“Moderate dietary sodium restriction with dietary potassium supplementation may obviate or reduce the need for drug treatment in some patients with mild to moderate hypertension.” (Macgregor, GrahamA, et al. 1982)

 

Book an appointment today with Shannon Hobson

Certified East West Herbalist

Text or call 604-993-0169, or email at  natknowhow@gmail.com

 

References:

  • Saint-Germain, Claire. “The production of bone broth: a study in nutritional exploitation.”  Anthropozoologica26 (1997): 153-156.
  • Tkatch, Lubos, et al. “Benefits of oral protein supplementation in elderly patients with fracture of the proximal femur.” Journal of the American College of Nutrition 11.5 (1992): 519-525.
  • Siebecker, Allison. Traditional bone broth in modern health and disease. Diss. NCNM, 2004.
  • Rombauer, I, et al., The All New Joy of Cooking, New York, NY, Simon and Schuster Inc., 1997, p.91.
  • Whitney, S.R. Rolfes, T. Crowe, D. Cameron-Smith, & A. Walsh, 2014, “Understanding Nutrition: Australian & New Zealand edition”, Cengage Learning Australia Pty Limited
  • Lupo, Karen D., and Dave N. Schmitt. “Experiments in bone boiling: nutritional returns and archaeological reflections.” Anthropozoologica 25.26 (1997): 137-144.
  • McCarty, Mark F., and James J. DiNicolantonio. “The cardiometabolic benefits of glycine: Is glycine an ‘antidote’to dietary fructose?.” (2014): e000103.
  • Liang, Xinwen, et al. “Proline mechanisms of stress survival.”  Antioxidants & redox signaling9 (2013): 998-1011.
  • Lamberg, Stanford I., and Allen C. Stoolmiller. “Glycosaminoglycans. A biochemical and clinical review.” Journal of Investigative Dermatology 63.6 (1974): 433-449.
  • Vallières, M., and P. Du Souich. “Modulation of inflammation by chondroitin sulfate.” Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 18 (2010): S1-S6.
  • Reid, I. R., S. M. Bristow, and M. J. Bolland. “Calcium supplements: benefits and risks.” Journal of internal medicine 278.4 (2015): 354-368.
  • Ford, Earl S., and Ali H. Mokdad. “Dietary magnesium intake in a national sample of US adults.” The Journal of Nutrition 133.9 (2003): 2879-2882.
  • Dietitians of Canada 2019, https://www.dietitians.ca/Your-Health/Nutrition-A-Z/Sodium.aspx
  • Macgregor, GrahamA, et al. “Moderate potassium supplementation in essential hypertension.” The Lancet 320.8298 (1982): 567-570.

Sage

Sage

Part:  aerial parts during budding (whole plant above ground), *leaves can just be used for ease of collection rather than whole plant

Scientific name:  Salvia officinalis

Energy: drying and warming

Taste:  aromatic and pungent

Western herbalism:  Lamiaceae  family (mint family), contains essential oils (main: cis-thujone at 17.4%), carminative, astringing and antibacterial (specifically towards  Strep. and  Staph.  bacterial strains)

Main uses:   helps with poor peripheral circulation, reduces perspiration (i.e. hot flashes, night sweats) due to circulation issues, can be used for gastric distress (i.e. gas and burping) and diarrhea, a mouth wash can be used for gum and throat sores/irritations

*from experience with use by others and myself, sage tea can is helpful for menstrual cramps in moderate doses ( but can increase bleeding during menses if used in excess)

2017 study on  Salvia officinalis, “ findings include anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antimutagenic, antidementia, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic effects,”  (Ghorbani A, and Mahdi E, 2017).

“Our review shows that S. officinalis and S. lavandulaefolia exert beneficial effects by enhancing cognitive performance both in healthy subjects and patients with dementia or cognitive impairment and is safe for this indication,”  (Miroddi M1, Navarra M, Quattropani MC, Calapai F, Gangemi S, Calapai G. 2014).

Cautions:  should not take when pregnant, as sage increases uterine circulation (emmenagogue and abortifacient actions), may also reduce lactation

Preparation and dosage:  Tea-   1 cup boiled water to 1tsp leaves, Tincture (dry leaf)- between 10 and 40 drops 1 to 4 times /day

*Always consult a qualified health professional before using herbal medicine, especially in conjunction with pharmaceuticals in therapeutic doses above those found in food amounts*

 

Book an appointment today with Shannon Hobson

Certified East West Herbalist

Text or call 604-993-0169, or email at  natknowhow@gmail.com

 

Ref 1:   (Ghorbani, Ahmad, and Mahdi Esmaeilizadeh. “Pharmacological properties of  Salvia officinalis  and its components.”  Journal of traditional and complementary medicine  vol. 7,4 433-440. 13 Jan. 2017, doi:10.1016/j.jtcme.2016.12.014)

 

Ref 2:   (Miroddi M1, Navarra M, Quattropani MC, Calapai F, Gangemi S, Calapai G. “Systematic review of clinical trials assessing pharmacological properties of Salvia species on memory, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease.” Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina, Messina, Italy, CNS Neurosci Ther. 2014 Jun;20(6):485-95. doi: 10.1111/cns.12270. Epub 2014 Apr 10.

 

Fennel Seed

                                           *fennel seed picture  fennel seed   © 1996-2019, Amazon.com, Inc.

Fennel

Part: Seed

Scientific name: Foeniculum vulgare

Energy: (Slightly) warming

Taste: Sweet, pungent, aromatic, acrid

Western herbalism:   Parsley family (Apiaceae), can contain up to 6% essential oil, and does contain fixed oil, and flavonoids, among other medicinal constituents

Main uses:   mild expectorant, antispasmodic, effects beta-2 receptors causing vasodilation, relaxation of the intestinal tract, as well as uterus relaxation, dilation of the bronchioles, and relaxation of the bladder, also used for anti-inflammatory effects, as a galactagogue, carminative, contains phytoestrogens, and used for flavoring

Traditional Chinese Medicine:   Chinese name – XIAO HUI XIANG

Main uses:   used to move stagnant Liver Qi and warm the Spleen and Stomach, reduces abdominal coldness and helps relieve pain due to cold stagnation in testes

Ayurvedic/Indian:

Dosha effects: Balances Vata, Pitta and Kapha

Main uses: Used as a carminative for digestion, flatulence and colic in infants, antispasmodic for digestive upset and coughs, anti-inflammatory, helps with the production of breast milk in lactating mothers, phytoestrogenic, mild expectorant, and helps mildly induce the onset of menses

Cautions: possible cautioned use in pregnancy, essential oil can be overused and cause seizures, vomiting, and pulmonary edema

Preparation and dosage:

Tea- 1tsp of crushed seeds, Powder- Acute condition- up to 12grams/day     Chronic condition- 1-2grams/day,     Tincture- 1:4 – 10 to 60 drops 4 times/day

 

*Always consult a qualified health professional before using herbal medicine, especially in conjunction with pharmaceuticals in therapeutic doses above those found in food amounts*

 

Book an appointment today with Shannon Hobson, Certified East West Herbalist

Text or call 604-993-0169, or email at natknowhow@gmail.com