Plant medicine for the treatment of GER, GERD/GORD, an East West Perspective:

 

*Image references in REFs section

What is GER?

Gastro-oesophageal reflux or GER, is a mild/medium form of acid reflux that occurs occasionally, also known as heartburn.  The stomach acid and contents back up into the esophagus causing irritation to the tissues.  GER can be caused by a defective/damaged/relaxed lower esophageal sphincter (the opening from the esophagus to the stomach).  Some contributors to acid reflux are obesity, hiatal hernia, smoking, acidic drinks like orange juice/coffee/tea, alcohol intake, caffeine/fat found in chocolate, fried foods, etc.

 

What is GERD/GORD?

Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is a more chronic (defined as 1-2 episodes per week on average)*1998-2020 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER) and is a more severe form of acid reflux.  The stomach acid and contents back up into the esophagus causing consistent tissue irritation, a bitter taste in the mouth, potentially coughing, pain when lying down, etc.  Untreated GERD/GORD can potentially lead to esophageal cancer and long-term damage.

*https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/gerd/symptoms-causes/syc-20361940

 

Chinese Herbal Formula Research:

Ligan Hewei & Jianpi therapies– are combined therapies used in China, pharmaceuticals like PPIs (proton-pump inhibitors), herbs, acupuncture, etc. to lessen symptoms of GERD.  The list of herbs used is extensive. Some herbs included are Panax Ginseng, Licorice root, Codonopsis root, Atractylodes, Zizyphus seed, Poria mushroom, Pinella, etc.   Many of these herbs act on the Spleen and/or Kidneys.

“Therefore, Ligan Hewei therapy and Jianpi therapy could be promising complementary and alternative therapies in the management of GERD, which potentially provides TCM practitioners with more suggestions and guidance in clinical decisions, as well as for treatments based on syndrome differentiation.” (Dai, Yun-kai, et al. 2020)

Wu chu yu tang- (Evodia, Ginger, Zizyphus seed, jujube date fruit) “A clinical study showed that wu chu yu tang (affiliated to Jianpi therapy) could improve the symptoms of GERD through anti-inflammation, antioxidant activity, acid suppression, reduction in pepsin secretion, and mucosal protection.” (Dai, Yun-kai, et al. 2020)

Modified Banxia Xiexin decoction (MBXD)- (Pinellia, Ginger, Zizyphus seed, Licorice root, Baikal skullcap, Panax ginseng, Coptis)- “This systematic review indicates that MBXD may have potential effects on the treatment of patients with GERD.” (Dai, Yunkai, et al. 2017)

Sini Zuojin Decoction (SNZJD)- (Bupleurum root, Immature bitter orange peel, White Peony root, Honey-fried licorice root)- “SNZJD might be useful in the treatment of GERD, but its long-term effects and specific clinical mechanisms are unclear.” (Li, Shaowei, et al. 2020)

Wendan decoction (WDD)- (Bamboo shavings, Immature bitter orange peel, Citrus peel, jujube date fruit, Pinellia, Poria, Ginger root, Prepare licorice root)- “The relapse rate was 12.4% for WDD, significantly lower than 44.0% for conventional therapies” (Ling, Wei, et al. 2015)

 

Western Herbal Research:

Full formulations unspecified but contained Slippery Elm, Peppermint oil, and an altered form of Licorice root– “A herbal formula designed to sooth and protect the gastric mucosa may be a better alternative than acid-suppressive drugs for people suffering with gastric irritation and GERD.” (Setright, Russell, 2017)

Some herbs outlined- (Calendula, Marshmallow root, Licorice root, Slippery elm, Ginger root, Turmeric root, Rosemary, Comfrey leaf, Aloe vera, Celandine)-“A multifaceted herbal approach can help both treat underlying causes of GERD as well as managing symptoms, helping many patients reduce or avoid long-term use of antiacid drugs.” (Kathy Abascal, 2010)

Aloe vera, Slippery elm, Licorice root, Marshmallow root– “Demulcent herbs contain mucilaginous materials that coat the lining of the gastrointestinal tract and can soothe irritation and inflammation. They repair the mucosa by reducing irritation of the bowel and decreasing sensitivity to gastric acid.” (Czibulka, Agnes, 2019)

Bitter candytuft, Angelica root, Chamomile flowers, Caraway fruits, Milk thistle fruits, Ginger root, Citrus peels–  “Other herbs, including Iberogast, ginger, and D-limonene, have been found in clinical studies to reduce gastric acidity, improve gastric emptying, and promote gastric healing.” (Czibulka, Agnes, 2019)

 

REFs:

Images:

GERD- https://www.thehealthjournals.com/chest-pain-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-gerd/

Marshmallow root- https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/324860#what-is-marshmallow-root

  • Dai, Yun-kai, et al. “Different Traditional Herbal Medicines for the Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Adults.” Frontiers in pharmacology 11 (2020): 884.
  • Dai, Yunkai, et al. “Efficacy and safety of modified Banxia Xiexin decoction (Pinellia decoction for draining the heart) for gastroesophageal reflux disease in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2017 (2017).
  • Li, Shaowei, et al. “Efficacy of Chinese Herbal Formula Sini Zuojin Decoction in Treating Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: Clinical Evidence and Potential Mechanisms.” Frontiers in pharmacology 11 (2020): 76.
  • Ling, Wei, et al. “Consistent efficacy of wendan decoction for the treatment of digestive reflux disorders.” The American journal of Chinese medicine 43.05 (2015): 893-913.
  • Setright, Russell. “Prevention of symptoms of gastric irritation (GERD) using two herbal formulas: an observational study.” Journal of the Australian Traditional-Medicine Society 23.2 (2017): 68.
  • Kathy Abascal, B. S. “Herbs for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.” ALTERNATIVE AND COMPLEMENTARY THERAPIES (2010).
  • Czibulka, Agnes. “Probiotics and Herbal Therapies.” Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Disease. Springer, Cham, 2019. 103-113.

This blog does not provide medical advice. It is intended for informational purposes only. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment.

 

Plant medicine for the treatment of bone-related diseases, focus on osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, an East West Perspective:

 

(Images references in Refs section)

Plant medicine for the treatment of bone-related diseases, focus on osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, an East West Perspective:

Western Definitions:

What is Osteoporosis?

The consistent break-down of porous bone mass leading to increased risk of fractures.  This can be caused by diet, prolonged exposure to chemicals, genetics, sickness, lack of exercise, etc.

What is Osteoarthritis?

The wear down of protective cartilage between joints.  This can be caused by prolonged repetitive movement(s), diet, genetics, general ‘wear & tear’, trauma, etc.

Traditional Chinese Medicine Perspective: Relates the onset of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis to an energy imbalance in the Liver (Blood), Spleen, and/or Kidneys, individually or together.

  • Liver is the main organ, being the major blood filtration system in the body, that brings nourishment in the form of Blood to the tendons/bones/ligaments.
  • Spleen, being the major organ of digestion, defines the quality of Blood that is produced because of food/drink we ingest.
  • Kidney, the main organ of Jing/Essence/born-with vitality, maintenance and quality of Jing is the foundation to the production of quality bone marrow.

Osteoporosis Research:

“We conclude that Chinese herbs substantially increased BMD (bone mass density) of the lumbar spine compared to placebo or anti-osteoporotic drugs as indicated in the current clinical reports on osteoporosis treatment.” (Wang, Zhi-qian, et al. 2013)

Curculigo orchioides (CO, common/Chinese name golden eye-grass, weevil-wort, xian mao)-“CO ethanol extract has a definite protective effect on bone loss in ovariectomized rats by inhibiting bone resorption and increasing serum phosphorus and calcium levels, without affecting bone formation [33]. In traditional Chinese medicine, CO rhizomes are considered to have the effects of maintaining healthy energy and nourishing the liver and kidneys.” (Wang, Zhi-qian, et al. 2013)

Herba epimedii (common/Chinese name Epimedium, horny goat weed, Xian Ling Pi/ Yin Yang Huo)-  “contains a plenty of Isoflavone [37]. Isoflavone is also one of the determined substance in most of the recipes. Pharmacological studies, either on murine models of osteoporosis or in vitro, have provided some convincing evidence of positive effects of soya and isoflavones on bone health.” (Wang, Zhi-qian, et al. 2013)

Common Onion– “Rutin, the glycosylated form of quercetin, is abundant in onion… The vitro trails showed that rutin consumption increased femoral strength and trabecular bone density by decreasing bone resorption, although cortical bone density was unchanged.” (Wang, Zhi-qian, et al. 2013)

Puerariae radix (common/Chinese name Kudzu root, Ge Gen)- “reversed the bone loss induced by castration, with femur BMD and trabecular number increasing… along with its bone-sparing effect.” (Wang, Zhi-qian, et al. 2013)

Other significant plants/herbs in this systematic review: (Wang, Zhi-qian, et al. 2013)

*systematic reviews are considered one of the top ‘golden’ standards in research, as it weans out insignificant or ‘outliner’ studies

  • Eucommia bark
  • Ligustrum lucidum
  • Rhizoma Drynariae
  • Achyranthes bidentate
  • Cibotium barometz (wolly fern)

Red sage root– “The review highlights the anti-osteoporotic potential of Salvia miltiorrhiza in clinical applications and the potential of the herb to provide potent compounds targeting specific pathways in bone resorption and bone formation.” (Guo, Yubo, et al. 2014)

Soy– “There are several mechanisms for anti-osteoporosis effects. Estrogen-like effects, especially soy phytoestrogenic compounds and other herbal compounds and formulations, can enhance bone formation markers, as well as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity, while decreasing bone resorption biomarkers. Therefore, they can be used as complementary medicine for osteoporosis, especially in postmenopausal older women.” (Habibi Ghahfarrokhi, Shahrzad, and Roya Reisi, 2019)

“We observed the release of markers and anti-inflammatory mediators after treatment with plants, which accelerated the recovery process of bone repair.” & “this study demonstrated that the use of plant extracts stimulates bone repair, increasing osteogenesis, the rate of calcification, and the formation and mineralization of bone callus, accelerating the process of new bone formation on the fracture region. Possibly, these effects are related to anti-inflammatory and antioxidant power of these extracts.” (Miranda, Lyvia Lopes, et al. 2019)

 

Osteoarthritis (OA) Research:

“Although the effect size was small, the meta-analysis revealed that rosehip powder does reduce pain and results in a statistically significant reduction in the use of analgesics.” (Mobasheri, Ali. 2012)

Pure form Turmeric for prevention– “three major curcuminoids was found to be efficacious in preventing joint inflammation when treatment was started before, but not after, the onset of joint inflammation.” (Mobasheri, Ali. 2012)

Resveratrol found in grapes, berries, and peanuts– “These results suggest the use of resveratrol as an herbal medicine for treatment of OA.” (Mobasheri, Ali. 2012)

Resveratrol combined with turmeric– “On the basis of these results, we have proposed that combining these natural compounds may be a more useful strategy in developing herbal medicines than using the individual compounds alone.” (Mobasheri, Ali. 2012)

GCSB-5 (Shinbaro®; Green Cross Corp., Yongin, Korea) is a medicine prepared from six herbs,

“The result of this study supports that GCSB-5 is comparable to Celecoxib in terms of the efficacy and safety for the treatment of osteoarthritis of knee joint.” (Park, Yong-Geun, et al. 2013)

  1. Siler root (Ledebouriellae Radix)
  2. Achyranthes root (Achyranthis Radix)
  3. Acanthopanax bark (Acanthopanacis Cortex)
  4. Chain fern rhizome (Cibotii Rhizoma)
  5. Soya bean (Glycine Semen)
  6. Eucommia bark (Eucommiae Cortex)

Kidney-Tonifying and Blood-activating Chinese herbs (KTBAMs) – “KTBAMs appear to be as effective as NSAIDs and seem to have an add-on effect to NSAIDs for the treatment of KOA (Knee Osteoarthritis).” (Huang, Hetao, et al. 2019) *Table 2 for herbs

Table 2:   (Huang, Hetao, et al. 2019)

Top 20 Chinese herbs and efficacy based on frequency of usage in the 38 study prescriptions.

Kidney-tonifying herbs
Achyranthes Root Radix achyranthis bidentatae Niuxi 24
Prepared Radix Rehmanniae Radix rehmanniae preparata Shudihuang 18
Malaytea Scurfpea Fruit Fructus psoraleae Buguzhi 14
Eucommia bark Cortex eucommia Duzhong 13
Chinese Taxillus Twig Herba taxilli Sangjisheng 13
Drynaria Fortunei Rhizoma drynariae Gusuibu 13
Epimedium herb Herba epimedii Yinyanghuo 10
Common Macrocarpium Fruit Fructus corni Shanzhuyu 7
Prepared common Monkshood Daughter Root Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata Fuzi 7
Blood-activating herbs
Achyranthes Root Radix achyranthis bidentatae Niuxi 24
Chinese Angelica Radix angelicae sinensis Danggui 20
Suberect Spatholobus Stem Caulis spatholobi Jixueteng 14
Danshen Root Radix salviae miltiorrhizae Danshen 11
Szechwan Lovage Rhizome Rhizoma chuanxiong Chuanxiong 10
Pain relief
Doubleteeth Pubescent Angelica Root Radix angelicae pubescentis Duhuo 10
Clematis Root Radix clematidis Weilingxian 10
White Peony Root Radix paeoniae alba Baishao 9
Common Flowering Quince Fruit Fructus chaenomelis Mugua 9
Others
Licorice Root Radix glycyrrhizae Gancao 16
Astragalus Radix astragalus Huangqi 10
Wolfiporia Extensa Poria cocos Fuling 7
 

Refs:

Image references:

                Skeleton-  https://www.amazon.ca/Sapiens-Human-Skeleton-Vintage-Drawing/dp/B07K5HBSRB

Herbs and bottles- © 2017 WAKUNAGA OF AMERICA CO., LTD. https://kyolic.com/benefits-of-herbal-medicine/

  • Wang, Zhi-qian, et al. “Chinese herbal medicine for osteoporosis: a systematic review of randomized controlled trails.” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013 (2013).
  • Guo, Yubo, et al. “Salvia miltiorrhiza: an ancient Chinese herbal medicine as a source for anti-osteoporotic drugs.” Journal of Ethnopharmacology 155.3 (2014): 1401-1416.
  • Habibi Ghahfarrokhi, Shahrzad, and Roya Reisi. “Effects of medicinal herbs on osteoporosis: a systematic review based on clinical trials.” Journal of Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences (2019).
  • Miranda, Lyvia Lopes, et al. “Plant Extracts in the Bone Repair Process: A Systematic Review.” Mediators of inflammation 2019 (2019).
  • Mobasheri, Ali. “Intersection of inflammation and herbal medicine in the treatment of osteoarthritis.” Current rheumatology reports 14.6 (2012): 604-616.
  • Park, Yong-Geun, et al. “A prospective, randomized, double-blind, multicenter comparative study on the safety and efficacy of Celecoxib and GCSB-5, dried extracts of six herbs, for the treatment of osteoarthritis of knee joint.” Journal of ethnopharmacology 149.3 (2013): 816-824.
  • Huang, Hetao, et al. “Are Kidney-Tonifying and Blood-Activating Medicinal Herbs Better than NSAIDs for Knee Osteoarthritis? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2019 (2019).

 

This blog does not provide medical advice. It is intended for informational purposes only. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment.

 

Neem Blog: “The Village Pharmacy” (Karta Purkh Singh Khalsa & Michael Tierra, 2008)

   

(Image credit in Ref section)

Neem “The Village Pharmacy” (Karta Purkh Singh Khalsa & Michael Tierra, 2008)

Part: bark, leaves, seed, seed kernel, fruit, flowers

Taste: astringent, bitter, pungent

Latin name: Azadiracta indica

Western medicine/research: constituents (not an exhaustive list); Nimbidin (extracted from the oil of seed kernels); tetranortriterpenes, including nimbin, nimbinin, nimbidinin, nimbolide and nimbidic acid, gedunin, azadirachtin, mahmoodin, gallic acid*, gallocatechin*, epicatechin* (*extracted from bark) (Biswas, Kausik, et al. 2002)

Actions: Table 1. Some bioactive compounds from neem (Biswas, Kausik, et al. 2002)

Neem Compound Biological activity
Nimbindin (seed oil) Anti-inflammatory, Antiarthritic, Antipyretic, Hypoglycaemic, Anti-gastric ulcer, Spermicidal,  Antifungal, Antibacterial, Diuretic,
Sodium nimbidate Anti-inflammatory
Nimbin (seed oil) Spermicidal
Nimbolide (seed oil) Antibacterial, antimalarial
Gedunin (seed oil) Antifungal, anti-malarial
Azadirachtin (seed) Anti-marlarial
Mahmoodin (seed oil) Antibacterial
Gallic acid, epicatechin and catechin (bark) Anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory
Margolone, margolonone, isomargolonone (bark) Antibacterial
Cyclic trisulphide, cyclic tetrasulphide (leaf) Antifungal
Polysaccharides Anti-inflammatory
Polysaccharides GIa, GIb (bark) Anti-tumor
NB-II peptidoglycan (bark) Immunomodulatory

*Research was not exhaustive, there are many studies on Neem and its medicinal properties/varying formulations/applications

Neem seed research:

“neem seed extract when diluted 1:10 with shampoo … It was shown that a broad range of pests and parasites, such as house dust mites, poultry mites, harvest mites, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus ticks, cat fleas (adults, larvae), bed bugs (all stages), head lice and mallophaga, cockroaches (genera Blatta, Blattella, Gomphadorhina), raptor bugs (Triatoma), and even food-attacking beetle (Tenebrio molitor) might be controlled with this extract” (Schmahl, Günter, et al. 2010)

“neem-based shampoo blocked the aeropyles of the eggs, thus preventing the embryos of both races of lice from accessing oxygen and from releasing carbon dioxide. Thus, this product offers a complete cure from head lice upon a single treatment” (Mehlhorn, Heinz, et al. 2011)

“Nimbidin and nimbolide from seed oil show antifungal, antimalarial and antibacterial activity including inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis” (Lokanatha, O., S. Mamatha, and Damodar Reddy, 2013)

“The mechanism of action of neem oil appears to be non-hormonal, probably mediated through its spermicidal effect and may have less side effects than steroidal contraceptives” (Maithani, Alok, et al. 2011)

*For use on psoriasis-  “It can be concluded that systemic and topical administration required for better management of Psoriasis” (Morya, G. C. K., V. Vinita, and R. Bahadur. 2017)

*For use on psoriasis- “inhibition of prostaglandin synthetase by nimbidin, a secondary metabolite present in A. indica essential oil” (Zuccotti, E., et al. 2018)

*Oil from seed kernels – “From this crude principle some tetranortriterpenes, including nimbin, nimbinin, nimbidinin, nimbolide and nimbidic acid have been isolated. These have been shown to exert antimalarial activity by inhibiting the growth of Plasmodium falciparum. Nimbolide also shows antibacterial activity against S. aureus and S. coagulase.” (Maithani, Alok, et al. 2011)

*Oil from seed kernels– “In vivo studies showed that intravaginal application of neem oil prior to coitus can prevent pregnancy. Antifertility effect of neem oil has also been studied and suggested to be a novel method of contraception” (Maithani, Alok, et al. 2011)

Neem leaf research:

“In this study, we have shown that the aqueous extracts of neem leaf exhibited highest antimicrobial activity compared with the bark and seed” (Lokanatha, O., S. Mamatha, and Damodar Reddy, 2013)

“The phytochemical and biological experiments performed during the current study confirm the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of neem leaves” (Pandey, Garima, K. K. Verma, and Munna Singh, 2014)

The aqueous extract of leaf also possesses potent immune-stimulant activity as evidenced by both humoral and cell-mediated responses” (Maithani, Alok, et al. 2011)

“Aqueous extract of neem leaves significantly decreases blood sugar level and prevents adrenaline as well as glucose-induced hyperglycaemia” (Maithani, Alok, et al. 2011)

“In HIV/AIDS patients, a 12-week oral administration of acetone water neem leaf extract (IRAB) had a significant influence in vivo on CD4 cells (which HIV reduces) without any adverse effects in the patients” (Hashmat, Imam, Hussain Azad, and Ajij Ahmed. 2012)

*Flower/leaf – “Hot water extract of the flower and leaf is taken orally as an anti-hysteric remedy, and used externally to treat wound.” (Hashmat, Imam, Hussain Azad, and Ajij Ahmed. 2012)

*Flower– “dried flower is taken orally for diabetes” (Hashmat, Imam, Hussain Azad, and Ajij Ahmed. 2012)

Neem bark research:

“Margolone, margolonone and isomargolonone are tri-cyclic diterpenoids isolated from stem bark are shown to exhibit antibacterial activity” (Lokanatha, O., S. Mamatha, and Damodar Reddy, 2013)

“tannins from the bark contain gallic acid, (+) gallocatechin, (–) epicatechin, (+) catechin and epigallocatechin, of which gallic acid (1), (–) epicatechin (2) and catechin (3) are primarily responsible for inhibiting the generation of chemiluminescence by activated human olymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN)12, indicating that these compounds inhibit oxidative burst of PMN during inflammation.” (Maithani, Alok, et al. 2011)

“Hot water extract of the bark is taken orally by the adult female as a tonic and emmenagogue” (Hashmat, Imam, Hussain Azad, and Ajij Ahmed. 2012)

Neem fruit research:

“Some active ingredient (Phytosterols) were isolated from the lipophilic fraction of neem fruit, exhibit antiulcer activity in stress induced gastric lesion.52In Ayurveda it is used in piles, intestinal worm, urinary disorder, epistaxis, phegm, diabetes, wound and leprosy.” (Maithani, Alok, et al. 2011)

“Hot water extract of dried fruit is used for piles and externally for skin disease and ulcers” (Hashmat, Imam, Hussain Azad, and Ajij Ahmed. 2012)

Neem general uses: (not an exhaustive list) Acne/pimples, dandruff, eczema, psoriasis, athletes foot, boils/carbuncles, canker sores, cellulitis, corns/calluses, diaper rash, herpes/coldsores, impetigo, ringworm, rosacea, scabies (“NEEM, Nature’s Healing Gift to Humanity”, Klaus Ferlow 2015)

Cautions:  oil is not to be orally ingested, “can act as a mild contraceptive” (“NEEM, Nature’s Healing Gift to Humanity”, Klaus Ferlow 2015)

Preparation/dosage: (not an exhaustive list)  neem seed oil, neem seed kernel oil, water-extracted leaf formulations, creams, lotions, soaps, shampoos, pesticide formulations, ethanol-extracted leaf/bark formulations (*dosage dependant on formulation applied and intended use)

“Neem personal care products derived from seed, oil and leaf include; Skin care – including eczema cream, antiseptic cream, and nail care; hair care – shampoo, and hair oils; oral hygiene – toothpaste and neem twigs; therapeutic – loose Neem leaves – tea, vegetarian capsules, powders; household products – soaps, insect repellent (spray and lotion), and candles.” (Hashmat, Imam, Hussain Azad, and Ajij Ahmed. 2012)

 

(Image credit in Ref section)

Ayurvedic Medicine:

Ayurvedic name:  Nimba, “the village pharmacy”

Energy:  Cooling

Tastes:  bitter, astringent, pungent

Effects on Dosha: Decrease Pitta and Kapha (bitter taste), increases Vata

Traditional use:  purification of ama (toxins) especially of the skin, parasites, irritation and skin ailments, vomiting, diabetes, jaundice, arthritis (“The Way of Ayurvedic Herbs”, Karta Purkh Singh Khalsa & Michael Tierra, 2008)

Cautions:  with tissue deficiency and cold temperatures, but is considered safe with mild adverse effects

Preparations/dosage:  Tea, application of crushed leaf on to skin irritations, eye solution, twigs used for toothbrushes  (“The Way of Ayurvedic Herbs”, Karta Purkh Singh Khalsa & Michael Tierra, 2008)

 

Refs:

Images:

Neem flowers: https://www.pinterest.ca/pin/560416747371883268/

Neem seed and leaves: https://www.britannica.com/plant/neem-tree ©2020 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

Neem full tree: https://www.asianjournal.ca/neem-the-tree-of-the-21st-century/  © 2018 Asian Journal by SW Media Group

  • Biswas, Kausik, et al. “Biological activities and medicinal properties of neem (Azadirachta indica).” CURRENT SCIENCE-BANGALORE- 82.11 (2002): 1336-1345.
  • Schmahl, Günter, et al. “The efficacy of neem seed extracts (Tre-san®, MiteStop®) on a broad spectrum of pests and parasites.” Parasitology research 107.2 (2010): 261-269.
  • Mehlhorn, Heinz, et al. “Ovicidal effects of a neem seed extract preparation on eggs of body and head lice.” Parasitology research 109.5 (2011): 1299-1302.
  • Lokanatha, O., S. Mamatha, and Damodar Reddy. “Antimicrobial activity of Azadirachta Indica (neem) leaf, bark and seed extracts.” International Journal of Research in Phytochemistry and Pharmacology 3.1 (2013): 1-4.
  • Pandey, Garima, K. K. Verma, and Munna Singh. “Evaluation of phytochemical, antibacterial and free radical scavenging properties of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves.” Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci 6.2 (2014): 444-447.
  • Maithani, Alok, et al. “Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf: A review.” Journal of Pharmacy Research 4.6 (2011): 1824-1827.
  • Hashmat, Imam, Hussain Azad, and Ajij Ahmed. “Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss)-A nature’s drugstore: an overview.” Int Res J Biol Sci 1.6 (2012): 76-79.
  • Morya, G. C. K., V. Vinita, and R. Bahadur. “Clinical Study on Evaluation of the Effect of Neem, Tulsi and Henna on Psoriasis. Med Aromat Plants (Los Angeles) 6: 304. doi: 10.4172/2167-0412.1000304 Page 2 of 5 Med Aromat Plants (Los Angeles), an open access journal ISSN: 2167-0412 Volume 6• Issue 5• 1000304.” Vishamagni 3.10 (2017): 3.
  • Zuccotti, E., et al. “Nutritional strategies for psoriasis: current scientific evidence in clinical trials.” Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 22.23 (2018): 8537-51.
  • “NEEM, Nature’s Healing Gift to Humanity”, Klaus Ferlow, Neem Research, Mission BC Canada, p.69-79 2015.
  • “The Way of Ayurvedic Herbs”, Karta Purkh Singh Khalsa & Michael Tierra, Neem, Lotus Press Twin Lakes WI p.162 2008.