Bone Broth

Bare Bones Bone Broth:

Nutritional break-down and clinical evidence

Bone Broth:   bones simmered over an extended period to release beneficial minerals, proteins and fat

Going back to traditional ideals and presenting something of pure nutrition. Bone broth is not new and has been around for centuries, with evidence of use from North American native people to continued use into the 17th century and beyond (S.G. Claire, 1997).   This tasty and nutritious source of minerals and easily digestible protein can be used to help deficient individuals (i.e. sick, children or elderly) gain strength. Malnutrition has been often suggested as contributing to both the high incidence of hip fracture in elderly people (Tkatch, Lubos, et al. 1992).

Also, Bone Broth can potentially benefit individuals by increasing recovery time during acute illness (i.e. cold and flu) as, removing the active chemical ingredients into the water by means of heat, time, and acid, making the nutrients immediately available to absorb (A. Siebecker, 2004).   Bone broth can be consumed whilst on the ketogenic or paleolithic diet as an additional source of some minerals, protein and fat.

Bare Bones Bone Broth has no additives or preservatives and can be given to pets, as it contains no added sodium (does contain a small amount of apple cider vinegar to increase demineralization from bones).

To ‘support and strengthen’ the function of connective tissue. To ‘support and protect’ the function of bone. To ‘store energy,’ the function of yellow bone marrow. To act as a ‘shock absorber and reduce friction,’ the function of cartilage. To be ‘flexible and strong,’ the function of collagen. To ‘hold it together’ and ‘keep it together,’ also the function of collagen. To ‘soup up,’ to increase the power or speed of. To ‘put stock in,’ to trust. (Rombauer, I, et al. 1997)

Bone:   provides the structural framework of our skeletal system, it houses and protects organs, aids in the process of mineralization/demineralization/calcium cellular absorption, produces blood cells and stores energy.

Bone Marrow:   contains fat and calories, includes; protein, Vit.B12, E, A, B2, Iron, Phosphorous, Thiamine

Cartilage:   important structural component that is softer and more flexible then bone and is found primarily are joint cartilage

Collagen: structural component for ligaments and tendons, strengthening glue to withstand blood pressure within vessels (E. Whitney, S.R. Rolfes, T. Crowe, D. Cameron-Smith, & A. Walsh, 2014).   Found in skin, bones, dentine and cartilage, Vitamin C is a essential vitamin for the production of collagen.

Prolonged heat exposure causes the collagen in connective tissue to turn into a gelatin that is more easily digested by humans (Lupo, Karen D., and Dave N. Schmitt., 1997).

Gelatin:   almost entirely protein (main amino acids outlined below), derived from cooked collagen

Glycine: essential amino acid, has been found to exert anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, cytoprotective, platelet-stabilizing and antiangiogenic effects (McCarty, Mark F., and James J. DiNicolantonio., 2014).

Proline:   essential amino acid, recognized that proline metabolism propels cellular signaling processes that promote cellular apoptosis or survival (Liang, Xinwen, et al. 2013).

Glycosaminoglycans: polysaccharides, is now recognized that these substances play crucial roles in the maintenance and regulation of cellular function as well as intercellular support (Lamberg, Stanford I., and Allen C. Stoolmiller, 1974).

Hyaluronic acid:   polymer of disaccharide, embryonic tissues including skin and umbilical cord and space-filling tissue fluid such as vitreous humor and synovial fluid are rich in hyaluronic acid (Lamberg, Stanford I., and Allen C. Stoolmiller. 1974)

Chondroitin sulfate:   disaccharide, the activation of **NF-IB is pivotal to immune homeostasis and the inflammatory response and therefore, in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases. The benefits of CS in osteoarthritis may be explained by reduction of NF-IB nuclear translocation in chondrocytes and synovial membrane (Vallières, M., and P. Du Souich., 2010)

**NF-kB is a protein that controls cytokine production, cytokines are proteins that signal immune responses

Minerals:

Calcium: essential mineral

Dietary calcium should be the primary source, and supplements reserved only for those who are unable to achieve an adequate dietary intake (Reid, I. R., S. M. Bristow, and M. J. Bolland., 2015)

Achieving an optimal dietary calcium intake is again a central issue when advising patients at risk of osteoporotic fractures (Reid, I. R., S. M. Bristow, and M. J. Bolland., 2015)

Phosphorus:  most abundant mineral in the body, phosphorus is an ingredient of ATP, the body’s source of energy. It is therefore a regulator of all enzymes via activation reactions (A. Siebecker, 2004)

Magnesium:   essential mineral

Magnesium is an essential element that is crucial to hundreds of physiologic processes in humans (1). Not surprisingly, inadequate intake of magnesium has been linked to various adverse health outcomes, including the development of cardiovascular disease (2), hypertension (3), diabetes mellitus (4) and headaches (5). Furthermore, magnesium is important in bone growth (6) and may play a role in athletic performance (7) (Ford, Earl S., and Ali H. Mokdad. 2003)

Sodium: this product contains no added sodium, while the body needs some sodium to function, too much may lead to high blood pressure, which is a major risk factor for stroke, heart disease and kidney disease (Dietitians of Canada, 2019)

Potassium:   essential mineral and electrolyte

Moderate dietary sodium restriction with dietary potassium supplementation may obviate or reduce the need for drug treatment in some patients with mild to moderate hypertension (Macgregor, GrahamA, et al. 1982)

 

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References:

  • Saint-Germain, Claire. “The production of bone broth: a study in nutritional exploitation.”  Anthropozoologica26 (1997): 153-156.
  • Tkatch, Lubos, et al. “Benefits of oral protein supplementation in elderly patients with fracture of the proximal femur.” Journal of the American College of Nutrition 11.5 (1992): 519-525.
  • Siebecker, Allison. Traditional bone broth in modern health and disease. Diss. NCNM, 2004.
  • Rombauer, I, et al., The All New Joy of Cooking, New York, NY, Simon and Schuster Inc., 1997, p.91.
  • Whitney, S.R. Rolfes, T. Crowe, D. Cameron-Smith, & A. Walsh, 2014, Understanding Nutrition: Australian & New Zealand edition, Cengage Learning Australia Pty Limited
  • Lupo, Karen D., and Dave N. Schmitt. “Experiments in bone boiling: nutritional returns and archaeological reflections.” Anthropozoologica 25.26 (1997): 137-144.
  • McCarty, Mark F., and James J. DiNicolantonio. “The cardiometabolic benefits of glycine: Is glycine an antidote to dietary fructose?.” (2014): e000103.
  • Liang, Xinwen, et al. “Proline mechanisms of stress survival.”  Antioxidants & redox signaling9 (2013): 998-1011.
  • Lamberg, Stanford I., and Allen C. Stoolmiller. “Glycosaminoglycans. A biochemical and clinical review.” Journal of Investigative Dermatology 63.6 (1974): 433-449.
  • Vallières, M., and P. Du Souich. “Modulation of inflammation by chondroitin sulfate.” Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 18 (2010): S1-S6.
  • Reid, I. R., S. M. Bristow, and M. J. Bolland. “Calcium supplements: benefits and risks.” Journal of internal medicine 278.4 (2015): 354-368.
  • Ford, Earl S., and Ali H. Mokdad. “Dietary magnesium intake in a national sample of US adults.” The Journal of Nutrition 133.9 (2003): 2879-2882.
  • Dietitians of Canada 2019, https://www.dietitians.ca/Your-Health/Nutrition-A-Z/Sodium.aspx
  • Macgregor, GrahamA, et al. “Moderate potassium supplementation in essential hypertension.” The Lancet 320.8298 (1982): 567-570.

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Recipe: Gluten Free Perogies with 2 tasty fillings :)

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Ingredients for dough:  *makes 12 perogies

-3 cups of “1 to 1” (brand) gluten-free flour (or any all purpose gf flour as long as it has xanthan gum in it)

-1/2 tsp xanthan gum (for extra bounce)

-1 tsp salt

-1 cup of cold water

-2 free-range eggs

-extra flour for rolling out dough

Whisk salt, flour and xanthan gum together in a large mixing bowl.  In a smaller side bowl, whisk eggs and water together.  Add the wet mixture slowly into the dry, mixing with your clean hands until fully combined.  Dust a clean flat surface with gf flour and start to knead the dough.  Knead for about 10 minutes.  Shape the dough into a ball and let it rest for another 10 minutes.  Keep aside.

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Filling #1 ingredients:  Potato filling*

-1 medium rustic potato (peeled and cut into chunks)

-1/4 cup of Imperial cheese (or any extra sharp old cheddar you prefer)

Boil the potato until tender, drain water and add cheese.  Mash together and set aside to cool.

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Filling #2 ingredients:  Ricotta and spinach*

-1 250ml container of ricotta              -1 cup spinach                 -1 clove of garlic          -pinch of salt

Blend ingredients together in food processor, set aside for later use.

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Making the perogies:

Spread a lite dusting of gf flour on a clean, flat surface.  Take half your dough and roll out with a rolling pin until about 1/8th of an inch thick.  Then take a large circular cookie cutter, or in my case a small metal sauce bowl, and cut out about 6 circles.  Place the left over dough back into the mixing bowl.

Now, take the fillings and spoon about 1 tbsp into each circle.  Have a glass of cold water ready for sealing the perogies.  Dab your finger with water and apply to half of the perogies edge, fold it over the filling and press closed with your fingers.  Then take the back of a fork and press around the pitched edge to ensure the perogies are sealed fully.

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Repeat this process until all perogies are made.  If the re-used dough becomes to dry simply add 1 tbsp of cold water and knead until consistency of original batter.

Cooking perogies:

Bring a large pot of lightly salted water to a boil.  Carefully place about 6 perogies in at a time. Cook for 6 minutes.  Take the perogies out with a slotted spoon.

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Serve hot with sour cream, sliced green onion and sauerkraut.  Yum!

I love this recipe because you can make lots of perogies simply by doubling the recipe and freezing the uncooked ones for later.  Hope you enjoy these tasty European dumplings, and be aware and eat with care 🙂

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